Home | Version française
You are here : Homepage » Informations search » Territories and infrastructures » Region » Lower Normandy » Basse-Normandie (Géographie & Histoire)

EVE direct

If you can't find the information
you are looking for ?
Contact us

Normandy (Geography & History)

  Ajouter au panier

Normandy was one of the kingdom of France's powerful dukedoms from 911 to 1204
A prosperous period after the 100 Years' War
A French province up to 1790
Lower Normandy created in 1956
A diversity of landscapes: from prairie to bocage
A multiplicity of coastlines: from cliff to sandy shore

Normandy was one of the kingdom of France's powerful dukedoms from 911 to 1204, following its creation in 911 via the Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte between the Viking Rollon and Charles the Simple.
In 1066, Rollon's descendant, William the Conqueror invaded England and, victorious at the Battle of Hastings, became William I King of England.
The Normans spread across and governed often distant lands. They founded Mediterranean kingdoms and principalities (Sicily and southern Italy).
In Normandy, the Hundred Years' War lasted around a century from 1346 to 1450. Following a few years of peace, the War resumed when in 1415, Henry V of England landed in the Seine estuary. Caen was once more pillaged by the English; however in 1420, Henry V, who had been acknowledged as the rightful heir to the French crown by the Treaty of Troyes, looked to gain the faith of the Norman people. The English occupation was to last 30 years. The consecutive battles of Formigny(1450) in Manche and of Castillon (1453) in Gironde were to mark the permanent liberation of the Kingdom of France and the end of the Hundred Years' War. Normandy then entered into a prosperous period during the first half of the 16th Century: a wealth of country manor houses emerged and prosperity made its mark on the urban landscape, following the construction of magnificent Renaissance style town houses. After 1550, the religious wars, followed by heavy taxes, were to hinder such prosperity.After the French Revolution, the province of Normandy, as many other former provinces, formed a military government. Then, in 1790, the province was divided into five departments: Calvados, Manche, Orne, Seine-Inférieure and Eure. From the 18th Century onwards, agricultural industrialisation was to transform the province's economy. On the 6th of June 1944, Normandy entered once more into history. At dawn, some 6,000 vessels including 4,000 landing barges and 130 warships headed for the Normandy coastline, taking the opposite direction as did William the Conqueror nine hundred years earlier.In 1956, a few years after the end of World War II, Normandy was exhausted, traumatised and, although it remained the only French region with a strong collective identity, it was to be divided into two administrative regions by the ENA graduate Serge Antoine.

The region benefits from a temperate oceanic climate, protecting its coastline from harsh winters. Despite its image as a particularly rainy region, Normandy in fact benefits from excellent levels of sunshine with an average of 1,700 hours per year.
A thousand different landscapes from the shore to the countryside. Normandy is home to a rich and varied natural heritage, characterised by the juxtaposition of a multitude of maritime and continental landscapes stretching across a relatively limited surface area.
From the Mont-Saint-Michel to the Cité de la mer in Cherbourg, the omnipresent maritime influence has constantly left its mark on Normandy's identity. With some 430km of coastline, Normandy is one of France's foremost maritime regions. Cliffy coasts (Jobourg), flat and sandy shores (Côte Fleurie and Côte de Nacre), coasts lined with coves and headlines, havens, foreshores, infinitely vast when uncovered at low-tide, mud, pebbles, sand, dunes... Normandy would appear to provide a medley of all existing coastal atmospheres.
Normandy's inland territories encompass rural landscapes whose quality has been preserved: South Cotentin and Orne bocage, Bessin marshlands, several forests (Andaines and Écouves)... woodlands representing a surface area equivalent to 11% of the region's total.

  • Drakkar de la Tapisserie de Bayeux
  • Cheminée SMN et locaux NXP